Adoptive Immunotherapy the Focus of New Hayes Report

Posted by Paula Goines, PhD, Medical Research Analyst on October 2, 2017

CAR_T_Cells.jpgChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and genetically engineered T-cell receptor (TCR) T cells have been topics of increasing interest as of late for both payers and providers alike. T cells are targeted, personalized therapies for:

  • solid tumors
  • hematological cancers
  • lymphoproliferative diseases

Although alternative treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation, monoclonal antibodies, hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs), and adoptive immunotherapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), have been used with varying success, all carry the risk of treatment failure, negative off-target effects, and fatal complications.

“However, because CAR T and TCR T cells are highly tumor-specific and tumor-reactive, these personalized, gene transfer–based technologies may overcome issues surrounding immune tolerance for tumor-specific T cells.”

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Non-genetically modified cell-based therapies like TIL can be hampered by immunosuppressive factors that allow tumors to evade detection and removal by the immune system. However, because CAR T and TCR T cells are highly tumor-specific and tumor-reactive, these personalized, gene transfer–based technologies may overcome issues surrounding immune tolerance for tumor-specific T cells.

Hematological malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), are characterized by an overproliferation of B lymphocytes (B cells) or T lymphocytes (T cells). B-cell–derived malignancies account for 80% to 85% of ALL and NHL cases. ALL and NHL are among the most common cancers diagnosed in pediatric patients, although they are diagnosed in adults as well. Although most patients respond to primary therapy, relapse is not uncommon. As a result, primary refractory and relapsed ALL and NHL present serious treatment challenges.

“CAR T cells and genetically engineered TCR T cells are manufactured by collecting lymphocytes from a patient or healthy donor and modifying them through gene transfer techniques. This modification allows them to produce cell receptors that are highly specific for tumor antigens.”

CAR T cells and genetically engineered TCR T cells are manufactured by collecting lymphocytes from a patient or healthy donor and modifying them through gene transfer techniques. This modification allows them to produce cell receptors that are highly specific for tumor antigens. CAR T and TCR T cells are then infused back into a patient’s body, where they direct a targeted immune response to cancerous tissue. The cells are most often derived from the patients themselves, although in some cases they may also be provided by a healthy donor.

Hayes produced a report on these technologies, titled Adoptive Immunotherapy Using Genetically Modified Lymphocytes for Lymphoproliferative Disorders and Hematological Malignancies. The report has been created in our brand new format, designed for quick and easy access to the information you need to make your coverage policy or evidence-based medicine decisions.

You can view a sample of the report by clicking here, where you can also fill out a form to request access to the full report.